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– Bootstrap is an open source toolkit for developing Mobile and Web applications with HTML, CSS and JavaScript. 
– It provides one of the worlds largest repository [Library] that helps developers to build complex HTML, CSS and JS pages with less logic and mark up. 
– It provides pre-defined CSS classes and stylesheets which you can apply for HTML. 
– It also provides JS with pre-defined functions to control HTML dynamically. 
– It provides a set of templates for different purpose, which developers can implement and customize according to their requirement.
– Prerequisites to learn bootstrap are HTML and CSS.

                              Setup Environment for Bootstrap

– Download and Install any Package Manager
  • NPM
  • Yarn
  • RubyGems
  • Nuget
 – We will use NPM [Node Package Manager] as Package Manager.
  • Visit the official website of “Node JS”
  • Download Node JS for your OS and 
  • Install [“.msi” for windows]
  • Verify from command prompt 
  • > node -v [to know Node JS version]
  • > npm -v [to know package manager version]
– Download and install bootstrap for your project. oOpen your project in “VS Code”
    o Open Terminal in VS Code [Terminal  Menu -> New Terminal (or) Ctrl + `]
    o Type the following command
            C:Shopping>npm install bootstrap @4.6
    o This will add a new folder into your project by name “node_modules”
    o All libraries that you install with NPM are kept in “node_modules”.

CSS Path: 
JS Path: 
Note: You can use bootstrap CDN. [Content Distribution Network]

Bootstrap CSS: 
– To use the bootstrap CSS you can link “bootstrap.css” to your HTML page.
        <link rel=”stylesheet” href=”../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css”>
– As a developer you have to know about the various classes provided by “bootstrap.css” file. 
– Bootstrap provides pre-defined CSS classes which you can apply to HTML elements to defined effects. 

<!DOCTYPE html>
 <title>Bootstrap Demo</title>
 <link rel=”stylesheet” href=”../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css”>
 .container {
 border:2px solid darkcyan;
 margin-top: 20px;
 <body class=”container”>
 <h2>Welcome to Bootstrap</h2>
 <button class=”btn btn-primary”>Register</button>

                                                              Bootstrap Containers

– Containers are uses for basic layout design. 
– Type are used for grid design.
 – Containers are defined with margin and padding. 
– Containers are controlled with “@media()” features that makes the page layout responsive. 
– Bootstrap provides 3 different containers.
        o Container
        o Container-fluid
        o Container-{breakpoint} based on width. [sm, md, lg, xl]

Class                             Name Purpose
.container                     min 540px – max 1200px [width]
.container-sm               min 540px – max 1140px[mobile]
.container-md               min 100% – max – 140px [tab]
.container-lg                 Min 100% – max – 1140px [laptop]
.container-xl                 Min 100% – max – 1140px [desktop]
.container-fluid           Min-100% – max 100% [responsive]
<!DOCTYPE html>
 <head> <title>Bootstrap Demo</title>
 <link rel=”stylesheet” 
 div {
 border:2px solid darkcyan;
 <div class=”container”> Container </div>
 <div class=”container-sm”> Container-sm </div> 
<div class=”container-fluid”> Container-fluid </div>

                                        Bootstrap Grid Classes

– Grid is designed by using “.row” & “.col” classes from bootstrap. 
– They provide as responsive grid design.
Defining a row: You can define a row in grid system by using following classes

Class Name                                    Description
.row                                         Single row
.row-cols-number                    The number of columns in row.
.row-cols-sm-number              For small screen
.row-cols-md-number              For medium screen

Row number can be defined only from 1 to 6.

Defining a column: You can define a column in grid system by using following classes
Class Name                                     Description
.col                                             It specifies a column
.col-sm                                       540px [mobile]
.col-md                                       720px [tab]
.col-lg                                         960px [laptop]
.col-xl                                         1140px [desktop]

-The columns must be defined with size explicitly and maximum number of columns can be 12.
-The column numbers define the size of column.
col-3             30% of browser
col-9             70% of browser 
You can use responsive according to device.

You can configure vertical alignment for content in a row, this will affect when height is changed. 
Row Alignment                             Purpose
.align-items-start                             Top 
.align-items-center                          Center
.align-items-end                              Bottom

Col Alignment                                 Purpose
.align-self-start                                  Left
.align-self-center                               Center 
.align-self-end                                   Right

You can configure the default columns in a row without using “col” class.
It is possible with “row-cols-number” [number from 1 to 6]
<!DOCTYPE html>
 <link rel=”stylesheet” href=”../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css”>
 <body class=”container-fluid”> 
<div class=”row row-cols-2″>
 <img src=”../Images/speaker.jpg” width=”100″ height=”100″>
 <img src=”../Images/earpods.jpg” width=”100″ height=”100″>
 <h3>Nike Casuals</h3>
 <img src=”../Images/shoe.jpg” width=”100″ height=”100″>
<img src=”../Images/jeans.jpg” width=”100″ height=”100″>

                                                                   Bootstrap Colors
– Bootstrap provides pre-defines classes for background and foreground. 
– The bootstrap contextual colors are:
        o Primary                          
        o Secondary                
        o Dark
        o Light
        o Success        
        o Danger
        o Info
 – To apply contextual colors for text you can use “text-contextualName”
        o .text-primary
        o .text-secondaryo.text-dark
        o .text-light
        o .text-success
        o .text-warning
        o .text-danger
        o .text-info etc. 
– To apply contextual colors for background you can use “bg-contextualName”
        o .bg-primary
        o .bg-secondary etc..
<!DOCTYPE html>
 <link rel=”stylesheet” href=”../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css”>
 <body class=”container”> 
<h2 class=”bg-dark text-light”>Bootstrap Colors</h2>
 <div class=”text-primary”>Primary</div>
 <div class=”text-secondary”>Secondary</div>
 <div class=”text-danger”>Error</div>
 <div class=”text-warning”>Warning</div>
 <div class=”text-info”>Info</div>

                                            Bootstrap Images

– Bootstrap provides pre-defined classes for Images. 
– These classes will make images more responsive.
 – Bootstrap Image classes are:
o. img                             : Base class for defining image effects.
o .img-fluid                     : It can change the image size as per device.
o .img-thumbnail             : It is used with border and size. To display like 

                                            Bootstrap Tables

– Bootstrap provides pre-defined classes for tables.
 – These classes will make tables more interactive and responsive. 
                    – .table-primary
                    – .table-success
                    – .table-danger
                    – .table-dark etc
                  Ex:   <table class=”table table-primary”>
                     – .thead-light
                    – .thead-dark
                    – .thead-primary
                  Ex:   <thead class=”thead-dark”>
                – .table-sm
                – .table-md
                – .table-lg
                – .table-xl
                    <table class=”table table-responsive table-hover table-warning”>                             
 Install jQuery for your project with NPM: 
– Components are pre-defined templates provided by Bootstrap.
 – Every template comprises of 
        o Presentation with HTML
        o Styles with CSS
        o Functionality with JavaScript/Jquery
– Every component is defined with presentation and functionality 
– You need bootstrap with Jquery library to design bootstrap components.
– jQuery is a library used by bootstrap for creating complex interactions. 
– To install jQuery type the following command 
    > npm install jquery
– jQuery library is added into “node_modules”

The basic files required for bootstrap templates from “bootstrap and jQuery” are
– bootstrap.css 
– jquery.js
– bootstrap.bundle.js
Note: Any jQuery file of bootstrap must be defined only after “jquery.js”
 – A developer has to know about different types of CSS classes provided by bootstrap.css and different types of attributes provided by bootstrap.bundle.js

                        Margin and Padding in Bootstrap 

– Bootstrap provides the following classes for margin and padding 
        .m    : margin 
        .p     : padding 
        .t      : top 
        .b     : bottom 
        .l      : left 
        .r      : right 
        .x     : left and right 
        .y     : top and bottom 
Syntax: ml : margin-left            pl : padding-left 
Size for Margin and padding can be defined from 0 to 5 points or auto. 

                                        Borders in Bootstrap

Border Classes
.border-primary, other textual 
Border Radius
.rounded-top, right, bottom, left
<body class=”container-fluid”>
 <img class=”border border-danger rounded-pill” src=”../Images/shoe.jpg” height=”100″ width=”300″>

                                       Bootstrap Close Icon
– Bootstrap provides a generic close icon.
 – Use to design close functionality. 
– You can define with class “.close” 
Ex:     <button class=”close”>x</button>

                                            Bootstrap Colors

– Text : text
– Background: bg
– Border: border
– Contextual colors: Primary, Danger, Success, Info, Warning etc. 
– Background Gradients
        o bg-gradient-primary
        o bg-gradient-success etc.. 

                                               Bootstrap Display Classes

– To apply display attributes in bootstrap we have to use “d-{value}”
– Value can be
        o None
        o Inline
        o Inline-block
        o Block
        o Table
        o Flex 
<body class=”container-fluid”>
 <div class=”d-inline p-2 bg-primary text-white”>HTML</div>
 <div class=”d-inline p-2 bg-dark text-white”>CSS</div>
 <div class=”d-none p-2 bg-danger text-white”>JavaScript</div>

                                           Bootstrap Embeds

– These classes are required for handling embedded contents like videos, iframe, embed 
        o Embed-responsive 
        o Embed-responsive-item – Embed requires Aspect ratio 
        o 21:9 “21by9”
        o 16:9 “16by9”

                                        Bootstrap Flex Classes

– The display-flex is used for flex display style
– Bootstrap provides additional class for making responsive flexible design
        o d-flex
        o d-inline-flex
        o d-sm-flex
        o d-lg-flex
        o d-md-flex
– The flex directions require following classes 
        o flex-row
        o flex-row-reverse 
        o flex-column
        o flex-column-reverse 
– You also need Justify content for flex display
        o justify-content-start
        o justify-content-end
        o justify-content-center
        o justify-content-between
        o justify-content-around
– You can also use alignment in flex display [Vertical]
        o align-items-start
        o align-items-end
        o align-items-centero align-items-baseline
        o align-items-stretch 

                                            Bootstrap Float


Bootstrap Components

– Bootstrap provides a rich set of components for various interactions. 
– Bootstrap components require HTML, CSS and jQuery attributes. 
– Bootstrap components require “bootstrap.bundle.js” library. 
– Script library is embedded into page by using <script> element.
 – Any bootstrap jQuery requires the base “jquery.js” core file. 

                                        Bootstrap Alerts

– Alert is used to display a message box dynamically embedded into page.
– You can open and close the alerts dynamically. 
– The bootstrap classes to design alerts are
            .alert-danger etc.
jQuery Attribute
        – Alert
        – Dialog
        – Modal etc.

                                        Bootstrap Badge 

– A badge is used for displaying notification style. 
– It is used for displaying annotations and marked contents in a list or any element.
         – .badge-primary
         – .badge-secondary
         – .badge-success etc..

                                      Bootstrap Breadcrumb
– It is mostly used for creating side navigation or site maps.

                                     Bootstrap Buttons 
– Bootstrap provides several classes for buttons. 
            – .btn-primary 
            – .btn-secondary etc. 
             –.btn-outline-danger etc. 

                            Button Toolbar and Button Group

 – Bootstrap can create a button tool bar with set of button groups. 

                                        Bootstrap Card 
– Card is a container.
– It contains flexible content inside. 
– It includes header, footer and body content.
    Class                                                                 Description
         .card                                             It is a container for defining card contents.                 
         .card-img-top                               It is used for image to display as card header.
         .card-header                                 It is used for header content.
         .card-footer                                  It is used for footer content.
         .card-body                                    It is used for body content.
         .card-title                                      It is used for titles.
         .card-subtitle                                It is used for sub titles.
         .card-link                                      It is used for links in a card.
         .card-text                                      It is used for normal text in card.
         .card-deck                                    It is a collection of cards.

                                    Bootstrap Carousel
– Carousel is used for creating sliding and fading contents. 
– It is used to create dynamic slide show with manual and auto navigation 
– It uses CSS and jQuery attribute to handle interactions. 
 Basic Carousel Classes 
Class                                                     Description 
.carousel                                 It is a container for sliding and fading contents. 
.carousel-inner                        All items in carouse must be defined in carousel inner.
.carousel-item                         It defines an individual carousel item. 
.active                                     It is used to start the carouse with specific item. 
.slide                                       It gives sliding effect. 
.fade                                        It give the fading effect.

Basic jQuery attribute 
data-ride                                 It Starts the carousel. You can define carousel a value for data-ride.

Carousel with Control:————————————-———————————–
– Controls allow to navigate between slides. 
– The controls are defined inside the carousel.
– Technically carouse controls are Hyperlinks with button behaviour.
 – Click Next for next slide and previous for previous slide. 
– Classes required to create carousel controls 
 Class                                                         Description 
.carousel-control-prev                        It adds a previous button. 
.carousel-control-prev-icon                 It is icon used for previous button. 
.carousel-control-next                         It adds a next button. 
.carousel-control-next-icon                 It adds next icon for next button. 

– The functionality for navigating previous and next is give by using jQuery Attributes
 Attribute                                                 Description 
data-slide                                            data-slide=”prev” for previous data-slide=”next” for next 
role                                                     specify the role of elements like dialog, alert, modal, button etc.

 Note: Every page can have multiple carousel contents. You need a unique ID for reference. Control usually refer to the ID of carousel.

Carousel Indicators: ————————————-—————————————
– Indicators allow to slide to any specific item in carousel. 
– Indicators will show how many items are there. 
– The classes required for adding indicators
 Class                                                         Description 
.carousel-indicators                            It is a collection of indicators

– The jQuery attributes used by indicators
 Attribute                                                 Description 
data-target                                  It specifies the ID of carousel. Indicators should refer to ID of carousel. 
data-slide-to-number                It indicates the index number of items to slide. Index starts with 0.

Carousel Slide Timing : ————————————-—————————————
– You can use the attribute “data-interval” to defined timing for every carousel item. 
– It uses milliseconds to define the timing [1000ms = 1sec].

                                    Bootstrap Collapse 
– It is used to define a container which can expand and collapse dynamically. 
– Show or hide contents in a group dynamically. 
 Class                                                         Description 
.collapse                                         It is a container that contains the content to collapse. 
.collapsing                                      It defines the animation style for collapse.                                It is used to show content 

– jQuery attributes to control collapse 
 data-target                                     It specifies the ID reference for collapse container.
 data-toggle                                     It is used to toggle the display ON or OFF.

    <div class=”accordian” id=”main”>
                <div class=”collapse” data-parent=”#main”>
                <div class=”collapse” data-parent=”#main”>
– You have to use buttons or links to toggle the collapse.

                                    Bootstrap Dropdown 
– Bootstrap dropdown is mostly used for navigation and selection. 
– They are not suitable for dynamic manipulations like adding items, removing items dynamically. 
 Class                                     Description 
.dropdown                                      It is main container with collection of menu items. 
.dropdown-menu                            It defines a menu with items. 
.dropdown-menu-left                     Menu with left orientation 
.dropdown-menu-right                   Menu with right orientation. 
.dropdown-item                              It specifies item in dropdown menu. 
.dropdown-item-text                       It is to define menu item. 
.dropdown-divider                          It is a separator for menu  items. 
.dropdown-toggle                           It will add ON and OFF for dropdown. 
.dropright                                        Animation for list items. 
.dropleft                                          Left drop animation.

                                    Bootstrap Navigation 

– Basic Navigation for page is designed by using “nav” classes. 
– The items used for navigation are defined as <ol> or <ul> 
– The static navigation options can be defined by using following classes. 
Class                                               Description.
 .nav                                                It configures a navigation bar 
.nav-item                                     It defines style for link in navigation item. 
.nav-tabs                                      It defines a tab style for navigation. 
.nav-pills                                       It defines a button style for navigation. 
.nav-link                                        It is used for links in nav bar.

                                    Bootstrap Tab Content 

– Bootstrap provides Tab panels that can allows dynamically changing view. 
– Classes required to create panels 
Class                                                Description 
.tab-content                                     It is a container of tab panels. 
.tab-pane                                         It is used to define a panel.

    <div class=”tab-content” id=”tab”>
                <div class=”tab-pane show fade” id=”#home”>
                <div class=”tab-pane show fade” id=”#about”>

                                    Bootstrap List Group 
– It is used to display ordered and unordered list. 
– The classes are 
            o .list-group 
            o .list-group-item (view) 
            o .list-group-flush 
            o .list-group-horizontal 
            o .list-group-horizontal-sm,lg 
            o .list-unstyled 
            o .list-group-item-action (onclick) 
            o .list-group-item-danger, info, warning etc.

                                    Dynamic Nav Bar 
– Bootstrap provides “navbar” for designing main navigation for website. 
– It is responsive navigation bar, which can change according to the device and screen. 
– It uses a combination with “collapse” 
Class                                                 Description 
.navbar                                           It is a container for navigation 
.navbar�expand-lg,sm                  It is used to define responsive navigation bar. 
.navbar-toggler                              It is used to define a toggle button to show or hide the items. 
 .navbar�toggler-icon                   Icon for toggler button 
.navbar.nav                                    To design the navigation items. 
.navbar-dark                                   Dark theme 
.navbar-light                                   Light theme 
.navbar-brand                                 It sets a title for navigation bar.

                                    Bootstrap Modal 
– Model is used to display a dialog box. 
– You can open and close the dialog dynamically. 
 Class                                                  Description 
.modal                                            It is a container for dialog. All dialogs are kept inside modal.
.modal-dialog                                 It configures a dialog box in model. 
.modal-content                               Content comprises of header, body, footer. 
.modal-header                                Header content. 
.modal-body                                   Body content. 
.modal-footer                                  Footer content. 
.modal-title                                     Title text. 
.modal-dialog-scrollable                 It will set overflow to scroll. 
.modal-dialog-centered                   It keeps the dialog center screen.

                                   Bootstrap Forms
– Bootstrap provides a set of classes for presenting forms and controls. 
– The classes used for displaying form elements like <input>, <select>, <textarea> etc. are
            o .form-control
            o .form-control-lg
            o .form-control-sm
            o .form-control-file [file input]
            o .form-control-range [range input]
– The class used to group controls is
            o .form-group
– The classes used for radios and checkbox
            o .form-check
            o .form-check-input
            o .form-check-label
            o .form-check-inline

                                        Inline Forms 
– You can organize and display the form elements inline. 
– It configures horizontal orientation for form elements. 
– The classes are 
            o .form-row 
            o .col [general column classes 1 to 12]

                                  Bootstrap Input Group 
– Input group is used to group a set of controls and display as one element. 
– Controls can be merged into one component. 
 Class                                                     Description 
.input-group                                       It is container with group of controls 
.input-group-prepend                         It is used to define a control hand side. 
.input-group-append                          It is used to define a control right hand side. 
.input-group-text                               It is special appearance for controls defined in prepend and append.

                                  Bootstrap Pagination 
– It is predefined style for pagination.
 – It defines page navigation items. 
– Classes required for navigation design 
Class                                                      Description 
.pagination                                       It is a container for page navigation items. 
.pagination-sm, lg                            It is size for pagination. 
.page-item                                        It is an item in page navigation, like previous, next, first, last. 
 .page-link                                        It defines the link for navigation.

                                 Bootstrap Spinners 
– Spinner is used to display status of any task performed in page. 
– It shows status like loading, download, processing etc. 
– The classes required for spinner 
            o .spinner-border
            o .spinner-border-sm 
            o .spinner-grow 
            o .spinner-grow-sm 
– You can set colors using “text-contextual”

                                 Bootstrap Position 
– The position classes 
            o .position-static 
            o .position-relative 
            o .position-fixed 
            o .position-sticky 
            o .position-absolute 
            o .fixed-top 
            o .fixed-bottom 
            o .sticky-top

                                 Bootstrap Size 
– Size is defined with height and width 
– Width is defined with “w” and height with “h” 
– Values for width and height 
            o  w-25 
            o  w-50 
            o  w-75 
            o  w-100 
            o  w-auto 
            o  h25 
            o  h-50
            o  h-75 
            o  h-auto o mw[max-width] 
            o  mh[max-height]

                                 Bootstrap Text Class 

Text Alignment
                 – .text-left, center, right, justify 
 Text Wrapping 
                – .text-wrap 
                – .text-nowrap 
                – .text-truncate 
Word Break 
                – .word-wrap 
                – .break-word 
Text Transform
                – .text-lowercase 
                – .text-uppercase 
                – .text-capitalize 
Font Effects 
                – font-weight-bold 
                – font-weight-bolder 
                – font-weight-normal 
                – font-weight-lighter 
                – font-italic 
                – text-monospace 
 Text Decoration 
                – text-decoration-none : to remove all effects 
Text Color 
                – text-primary, success, failure


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